Waste not: Productive waste streams and nutrient cycling

        I would love to sit here and tell you about my wonderful zero waste household and about how transitioning to a totally closed loop lifestyle was really fast and effortless. But the fact of the matter is that simple isn’t true. I’m making this distinction right up front because I want you all to realize that transitioning to a waste free lifestyle is a process.
That being said, we have substantially cut down the amount of waste that we produce, or rather that we allow to leave our property I should say. You see everything produces waste. The question is rather can that waste be put to productive use? If the answer to that question is no, that thing must be eliminated. Just to be up front we still do produce some single use plastic waste. But these are wastes products we are trying to gradually eliminate as we find alternatives or go without. It is possible to eliminate these things but the point of this article is less about how we cut down on our waste but rather how we channel most of our waste into what I call “productive streams”.
    First off let’s define one thing so that we know exactly what it is we are dealing with. Anything in surplus not put to productive use, no matter how benign, becomes a pollutant. Often this occurs in the form of misplaced energy. Let’s take for instance animal manure. Every farmer and gardener knows this can be a precious resource that can produce results of spectacular fertility when growing food. On the other hand having chicken shit piling up to ones knees can produce serious problems. In that example the waste resource, chicken manure, wasn’t being put to productive use. Even a surplus of good advice can overcrowd ones mind when making an important decision.
    To simplify things most of our waste falls into one of two categories, that which can be absorbed back into our system, and that which cannot. The following concerns itself with the former. All our organic waste is directed back to the system and at living resources. Food scraps, manures, cardboard, yard debris, even non-synthetic textiles. If it has lived before, it can live again!
All organic waste is directed to one of the following seven productive waste streams. It should be noted here that these are dynamic systems, and that like all good permaculture elements there is a fair amount of redundancy which ensures success.
  1. Compost worm bins.
  2. 18 day Berkeley compost piles.
  3. Black soldier fly bin.
  4. Pit gardens ( banana circles, papaya circles, coconut circles, etc.)
  5. Diverse sheet mulch.
  6. Compost toilet.
  7. Ducks and aquaculture.
Let’s take them one by one:
Compost worm bins
   This is the preferred destination for most of our kitchen scraps. In fact, our worm bins are intentionally located right next to the kitchen garden on the way to the duck coop so we pass them every morning. They receive all our vegetable peelings and such from the night before. As the name says, these are bins that house compost worms, not earthworms! This is an important distinction to make. If you dig up some earthworms from your yard and chuck them in a bin they will likely die. Our bins consist of some old bath tubs on blocks under the tables in our hoop house. You can use any receptacle you like. I prefer the tubs because they already have a drain, they’re are durable and they’re not made of plastic. We don’t put any citrus, meat, or members of the Allium family ( onions, garlic, etc.) in the bins. We do put manured duck bedding and chopped up banana stalks as the base. When we water our seedlings, the excess water falls through the tables and passes through the bin picking up all kinds of nutrients and beneficial bacteria. We collect this nutrient rich water in a tray placed under the drain in the bottom of the tub. This is our main high potassium liquid fertilizer. And the sticky black castings are garden gold.
Compost worms. Photo Mercedes Diaz

 

18 day Berkeley compost piles.
    This is the Great White of the garden! It will eat anything; fish heads, manure, urine, weeds, yard cuttings, even road kill if you have the stomach for it. I composted an iguana once. The key is keeping the temperatures above 131 f. I like to keep mine between 131 f and 149 f ( 55c to 65c ) for as long as possible. At those temperatures, most weed seeds and pathogens are killed. When i first started gardening I read all kinds of books on compost. They mostly just tell you all the things you can’t put in to compost. I’m here to say that is BS! I put whatever i can scrape together in them and it all comes out the same. In fact the more diverse the ingredients the higher the quality compost comes out. I like this method because I start with a cubic yard of material and end up with a cubic yard of compost, more or less. With a cold compost pile, you might lose 80 percent of the volume of the pile and it could take four to six months to breakdown. This method consists of constructing the pile, letting it sit for four days, and then turning the pile every other day for two weeks.
Compost worm bins under potting benches. Photo Eric Vocke
Black soldier fly bin.
    This bin is basically just a very large repurposed tote with drain holes in the bottom. There are two spa hoses that lead into a bucket outside the bin. When the BSF larvae are ready to pupate, they will make their way up the hose into the bucket where we harvest them for our ducks and fish. The larvae are extremely high in protein and fat and allow us to cut our feed costs while converting waste food into eggs and fish. We put things like lush fruit, spoiled meat, manure, and bones in here. BSF larvae are very efficient at dispatching waste as they eat ten times their body weight in a day.
Pit gardening. Photo Mercedes Diaz

 

Pit gardening.
    This is by far my favorite. It consists of a pit dug in the ground with the spoils piled around the rim to form a donut like mound. Around this are planted species of plant that like moisture and are heavy feeders such as banana, papaya, coconut, squash, sweet potato, taro, etc. The pit is filled with rough mulch and manure. It stays moist for months, especially if you line the bottom with logs. The plants feed centrally saving space and stacking functions. And since there is little light penetration little to no weeds grow. It’s very satisfying to throw big chunky awkward yard debris in the pit. In particular, stuff that would have taken hours to chop up or haul off. And it keeps that organic material out of landfills. We throw in palm fronds, tree branches, junk mail, card board, citrus peels, urine, and cat litter! I’ve even heard of people throwing in tin cans for iron. Our bananas grown in this manner grow like weeds and outpreform all our other clumps, especially in the dry season. These gardens are more intended for the tropics but can be adapted for other climates.
Banana circle. Photo Eric Vocke
Diverse sheet mulch:
    This method is a no brainer and was the preferred method of composting for Bill Mollison. Throw your food scraps, manure, whatever you have on the ground, cover with cardboard, and mulch over with a high carbon mulch. You can add amendments like seaweed, rock dust, blood and bone meal. Then sit back and relax. Ive been doing this method for years, it works great, and I’ve never had a problem with vermin. In the tropics, where i live, organic matter breaks down almost as soon as it hits the ground. The dark moist layer cake that forms is a preferred place for worms and Mycelium.
Garden abundance! Photo Eric Vocke
Compost toilet
    The most popular compost toilet system for small properties is the lovable loo. It consists of a box with a toilet seat and lid with a bucket inside. After making a deposit, you chuck in a few handfuls of high carbon material like saw dust. Ideally, you would have a urine diverter, this prevents liquids from mixing with solids which is what causes bad smells. Also, the urine is an ideal liquid high nitrogen fertilizer when diluted. We not only use urine as our main fertilizer but also to kickstart out compost. There are lots of compost toilet designs out there and they all work just fine.
    If you really want to up your game to the next level there is the biogas digester. Unfortunately, we are not able to have a digester on this property.
Ducks and aquaculture.
    Poultry are the great converters. They can turn weeds, insects, even ruminant manures, incredibly, into eggs and meat while producing high phosphorus fertilizer. Ducks, geese, chickens they all have specific functions they can preform. We have a small flock of Indian runner ducks and couldn’t be happier with the breed.
    Any other bits and pieces such as green cuttings ( sweet potato vine, comfrey ) and black soldier fly larvae, go to the fish. I even sometimes rinse the duck bowls out in the pond and the fish gobble up all the leftover bits of grain. The ducks also fertilize the pond, feeding zooplankton and phytoplankton. The aquatic plants, algae, and snails go back to the ducks. For details on our 12,000 gallon swimming pool conversion to aquaculture fish pond, go here
Photo Mercedes Diaz

 

     All of these systems work because they are positioned in relation to their function. They have to be convenient or you won’t use them. Don’t put you worm bin on the other side of your property if it will receive daily food scraps.
    The Japanese have a turm, Satoyama, which can refer to a place but also an approach to agriculture. One of the concepts of Satoyama is that human beings are a part of the local ecosystem. People in Satoyama villages have been living sustainably for millennia. If we want to live a ethical and sustainable lifestyle there is only one thing we must do and that is to put back more than we take. Managing ones waste streams is the first step in that direction.
Links:
Geoff Lawton explains worm bin here
Eric Vocke making a Berkeley compost here
Geoff Lawton & compost chickens here
Mercedes Diaz here
Eric Vocke here